The transformation of vibrations into electric energy through the use of piezoelectric devices is an exciting and rapidly developing area of. “This is certainly an interesting book for those who design vibrational piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices, providing an extensive review of many of the. This book investigates in detail piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) technology , assessing its potential us to replace conventional electrochemical batteries.
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Energy Harvesting Technologies provides a cohesive overview of the download this book Performance Evaluation of Vibration-Based Piezoelectric Energy. The piezoelectric material selection and the circuit design in vibrational energy harvesting are discussed. The performances of the. With Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, world-leading researchers case studies including experimental validations, and is the first book to.
In a well-organized structure, this volume discusses basic principles for the design and fabrication of bulk and micro-scale energy harvesting systems based upon piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies.
It provides excellent coverage of theory and design rules required for fabrication of efficient electronics and batteries. In addition, it covers the prominent applications for energy harvesting devices illustrating the state-of-the-art prototypes. Combining leading researchers from both academia and industry onto a single platform, Energy Harvesting Technologies serves as an important reference for researchers, engineers, and students involved with power sources, sensor networks and smart materials.
download Hardcover. download Softcover. FAQ Policy. Major application target of EH is for independent sensor networks [ 1 ]. The sensor network is consisted of the wireless sensors placed on various places, such as human body, vehicles, and buildings, in order to monitor the physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, sound, pressure, etc.
The data are gathered from the sensor nodes to data center through the gateway sensor node. Sensor node is consisted with a radio transceiver with an antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors, and an energy source. EH is attracting an attention for the embedded energy source of sensor nodes and is considered to be one of the key technologies of Internet of things IoT. The architecture of the sensor network. The configuration of sensor network consisting of sensors placed on various places.
The compositions of the sensor node are illustrated in the upper right side. The available energy from the environment includes solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy. Solar energy has the capability of providing large power density outdoors; however, it is not easy to capture the adequate solar energy in indoor environment. Mechanical vibration is the most attractive alternative [ 1 , 2 ].
Vibration-electrical energy harvesting using piezoelectric effects has been explored for possible use in sensor network modules [ 1 — 11 ]. Acceleration and frequency of the vibration sources in the environment [ 13 ]. Typical components of the vibrational energy-harvesting systems. Mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy by energy harvester and is adjusted the output by the power management circuit. Considering the application to the power source, appropriate power management circuit design to adjust to the requirement of the application devices.
Energy harvester is vibrated by the excitation force of the vibration source, then the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy by piezoelectrics in energy harvester.
The generated electrical energy is consumed in the application circuits; finally, the optimum control of an electrical output in accordance with a load condition of the applications is required. Therefore, the power management circuit plays an important role in the system. Since the voltage and current of the electricity generated by the piezoelectric energy harvester are alternating, diode rectifier has required to produce direct current DC power supply. And the electricity from the piezoelectric power generator is large amplitude and frequency fluctuations; therefore, regulation circuit is required.
DC-DC convertor is controlled by regulation circuit to adjust the requirement of the applications. Alternating voltage having a waveform of almost positive negative symmetry is generated by piezoelectric generator.
By full wave rectifying circuit, the generated voltage was converted to one of constant polarity positive or negative. Smoothing capacitor or filter is required to produce the steady direct voltage. The regulated circuit including capacitor and DC-DC convertor produced constant voltage output. Block diagram of the power management circuit in the energy-harvesting systems.
In order to obtain energy harvesters with high performances, material selections are important problems. From the view point, figures of merit of the materials have been discussed thus far. Priya has provided dimensionless figures of merit DFOM for a 3—1 mode transducer under on-resonance and off-resonance conditions, as follows. Takeda et al. However, the aspects of the ambient vibration and required electrical characteristics as converters are diverse, and obtaining a full understanding of the appropriate material properties for various applications is still challenging.
The output voltages a from the piezoelectric generator b after rectification with a full-wave rectifier using four diodes and c controlled by using power management circuit. In our previous study [ 16 , 17 ] the unimorphs—cantilevers with an active piezoelectric layer and an inactive elastic layer—were fabricated, and, prelaminar results on the performance were reported.
Although EH devices fabricated by using thin film piezoelectrics are advantageous in the miniaturization and mass-productivity, EH devices fabricated by using bulk ceramics are superior in power output. Moreover, in the case of the unimorph EH devices by using bulk ceramics, material selections are easy by just replacing the ceramics. While, in the case of EH devices by using thin films, film deposition process is depending on the materials, comparative study of materials is relatively difficult.
From the perspective of minimizing the environmental load by avoiding the use of lead-containing materials, consideration of lead-free piezoelectric materials is valuable for energy-harvesting devices [ 13 ].
Therefore, in addition to PZT-based ceramics, barium titanate BT -based ceramics was evaluated for piezoelectric materials in this chapter. The performance of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices that captured frequencies of 60 Hz for PZT-based and BT-based ceramics was evaluated and the figures of merit of the materials have been discussed in order to provide the guidelines of the piezoelectric material selections. The results using power management circuit are included for evaluating the performance as the power source.
The experimental setup for measuring the unimorph generator.
The unimorph constructed by the piezoelectric ceramics and FRP beam was attached to the vibration generator and oscillated with various frequencies and accelerations. The displacements and accelerations of the unimorph were monitored by the acceleration sensor attached to the other end during measurement . The commercial piezoelectric bimorph is used for basic operations in the power management circuit.
And the piezoelectric unimorph were fabricated by remodeling the commercial bimorphs. Details were described in our previous study [ 16 ].
Piezoelectric ceramics was adhered to both the side of the beam. The unimorph was attached to the vibration generator and oscillated with various frequencies and accelerations.
And the characteristic frequency of the beam was 57 Hz. An acceleration sensor was attached to the other end, and the displacements of the unimorph were monitored during measurement.
The beam vibrated with the tip as a node at 60 Hz. In the case of the unimorphs, commercial bulk PZT ceramic disks were used. Voltage, power, and material parameters of the piezoelectric samples [ 16 ]. In order to evaluate the performance as an energy source, a piezoelectric energy-harvesting power supply integrated circuit LTC, Linear Technology Corp. The bimorphs were oscillated for 45 sec. The V charge shows the maximum at 57 Hz, indicating that the maximum displacement of the bimorph provides the largest voltage output.
The output voltages across the various load resistors were measured.
It is found that the voltage increases proportionally to the relative displacement. It is noted that the electric powers varied with the load resistance. In all samples, the power increases with increasing resistance and showed that their peak power decreases with increasing resistance.
The resistance that yielded maximum power varied with the samples, this resistance roughly correspond to the resistance of the samples.